One very important design principle I came across years ago was something called MVC; Model View Controller. Essentially what that entails is instead of bunging all your PHP code (and MVC does not only refer to PHP, its a design concept used in lots of other languages) into one file to represent a page, like database connection, running a query on the database, formatting that data and manipulating it, followed by echo'ed HTML to display that data in tables or whatever format is desired, MVC seeks to seperate all the different parts of a web application to make managing them easier.
Model refers to the actual object classes that describe the database schema your data is stored in. Instead of writing your own SQL queries by hand and hard-coding things like database, table and column names, the model is the intermediary. The model is responsible for connecting to the database, generating a query based on parameters you have passed to it, manipulating that returned data and then sending the end result back to whatever called it ready for use.
View refers the actual presentation on screen that an end user would see. The view doesn't care what the database looks like or even if one exists at all as long as it has the data it needs to create the presentation it is supposed to. It will generate the HTML needed for that data the model extracted to be displayed in a way that makes sense to the user.
Controller is the intermediary. It will take the events generated from the View, such as mouse clicks, page loads, etc, analyse what the view has done, decide what the next step will be, such as load another view or ask the model to return more data and then send that data to another view, etc. The controller can be thought of as the glue that binds the model and views together.
Whew! Ok, enough of that lecture. There is one problem with this seemingly clever seperation of tasks. Coding an MVC framework can be a nightmarish task and the complexity of making an MVC alone work can be more effort than its worth. This is where symfony comes in. Symfony is an already pre-built MVC framework for PHP, and while setting up your own MVC structure would be laborious, symfony's is ready to go and using the framework as opposed to writing your own PHP code from scratch actually makes the job even faster than using no MVC at all.
So why is symfony so great? Well, feel free to try it yourself. Symfony's philosophy is convention over configuration which means that, instead of explictly defining the relationships between classes and database schema, for example, that there is an implied relationship. For example, if you had a table called "sales_history", the model class that deals with interacting with that table is called "SalesHistory". Its a convention, we agree to use it this way. It is only if you decide to not use this convention and name your class "SalesMade" that you need to worry about reconfiguring aspects of your code to do that.
Because of this convention scenario you can do the following steps, after having installed symfony, to have a fully working set of database-agnostic model classes ready to use in your application:
- Go to a terminal and enter:
/path/to/symfony generate:project project_name
- Then go to "/path/to/project_name/config/schema.yml" and define your database structure in the easy to use YAML syntax
- Go to terminal and enter "symfony propel:build-model;"
At Synaq, we have been using symfony for over a year now on a specific, large, and complex project and it has proved invaluable. There has been a lot of learning and experimentation involved in getting to know and use the framework to its best, but the experience has been well worth it seeing how quickly, even with the learning curve, we have been able to produce results.
There is far too much involved with symfony for me to be able to go into great detail here, and I will be giving more information in future on tricks and tips we have learnt while using it. Suffice it to say, if you want to simplify the way you develop large projects, feel free to go give symfony a look.